About this Show

Democracy Now

News/Business. Independent global news hour featuring news headlines, in depth interviews and investigative reports. (CC) (Stereo)

NETWORK

DURATION
01:00:00

RATING
PG

SCANNED IN
San Francisco, CA, USA

SOURCE
Comcast Cable

TUNER
Channel 24 (225 MHz)

VIDEO CODEC
mpeg2video

AUDIO CODEC
ac3

PIXEL WIDTH
544

PIXEL HEIGHT
480

TOPIC FREQUENCY

Francis 11, Kelvin 7, Romney 6, Us 6, Horacio Verbitsky 5, Scott Prouty 4, Delta 4, Tick 4, Charlie 4, Argentina 3, Yorio 3, Obama 3, Amy Goodman 3, Aaron Swartz 3, Orlando 3, Latin America 3, Kelvins 3, Germany 3, Rome 3, Hawaii 3,
Borrow a DVD
of this show
  LINKTV    Democracy Now    News/Business. Independent global news hour featuring news  
   headlines, in depth interviews and investigative reports....  

    March 14, 2013
    8:00 - 9:00am PDT  

8:00am
03/14/13 03/14/13 [captioning made possible by democracy now!] >> from pacifica, this is "democracy now!" brothers and sisters, good evening. as you know, the duty of the conclave, give from a bishop. it seems my brother cardinals went almost to the end of the world, but we are here.
8:01am
>> a pope from the americas. the catholic church chooses jorge bergoglio to be the first jesuit to have the catholic church. what praise for his work with the port, the new pope has long been dogged by accusations that his role during the dictatorship in argentina. goolsbee with a leading argentine journalists who expose the new pope's connection to two just what priests by the dictatorship as well as his alleged role in helping to hide political prisoners from a visiting delegation of the inter-american human rights commission. all of that and more coming up. this is "democracy now!," democracynow.org, the war and peace report. i'm amy goodman. the papal conclave has selected cardinal jorge mario bergoglio of argentina to be the new pope. he replaces pope benedict, who shocked the catholic church last month when he became the first
8:02am
pontiff to resign in almost 600 years. bergoglio has taken the name pope francis, the first pope from latin america and the first not to hail from europe in more than 1000 years. he is the first to come from the jesuit order of priests, which is known for its work in social justice. he is viewed as a theological conservative who staunchly opposed abortion, same-sex marriage, and the ordination of women. in argentina, his long been dark -- dog are reports. we will spend the rest of the rest of the hour on pope francis after the headlines. president obama met with house republicans wednesday in a bid to resolve the ongoing standoff over a budget deal. obama sparked concern over his willingness to discuss cutting safety net programs in a bid to cut spending. wednesday, he appeared to directly reject republican's stated priority of reducing spending to trim the deficit, reportedly telling them "our
8:03am
biggest problems in the next 10 years are not deficits." the meeting followed the release of the republicans' 2014 budget by paul ryan. his plan would balance the budget in 10 years through major cuts to social programs, including the repeal president obama's healthcare law. president obama said a difference with republicans may be too wide to reach a deal. it may ultimately be the differences are just too wide, if their position is we cannot to any revenue or we can only do revenue if we get medicare or social security or gut medicaid. if that is the position, we probably will not get a deal. >> president of a mess, it's also, senate democrats released 'seir 14 -- president obama comments also came as senate democrats released their 2014 budget. colorado state lawmakers have given final approval to some of the toughest gun control laws in
8:04am
the country. the measures include a limit on ammunition magazines to 15 rounds, forcing gun buyers to pay for background checks, a requirement that domestic abusers surrender their guns, and a ban on obtaining concealed-carry permits online. the democratic governor has pledged to sign the measures in the law. in egyptian government inquiry has found the regime of ousted president mubarak was behind nearly the killing of all 900 protesters during the country's uprising. according to the associated press, a fact-finding commission has confirmed mubarak's regime used rooftop snipers to fire to large crowds in tahrir square. the report cites internal government records of assault rifles and ammunition rounds showing the police shootings were widespread, concluding the shootings could have only been approved by the former interior minister with mubarak's blessing. the findings, had ever retrial for them on charges of failing to stop the killings.
8:05am
they successfully appealed their convictions last june. he's really benjamin -- prime madeter benjamin netanyahu a deal to bring in parties controlling 68 of the israeli parliament's 120 seats. the agreement excludes former allies in israel's far religious parties to include more centrist partners, including former is for the foreign minister living. a funeral was held in the occupied west bank wednesday for the latest unarmed palestinian shot dead by israeli troops. 25-year-old was among a group of people fired on by israeli forces during a raid near the city. his cousin said he was killed while filming the raid. >> he was filming from about 100 meters away from the army jeeps with his cellphone. logically, a stone cannot reach
8:06am
if you're that far away. a sniper shot him using only one bullet. the shopkeepers had already closed the shops themselves, but the army was shooting. >> who was the sixth palestinian killed by the occupation force. questions on the failure to halt the epidemic of sexual assault within ranks. some 19,000 members of the military were sexually assaulted in the 2011 fiscal year. if your than one in 10 of the perpetrators whose attacks were reported have actually been held accountable. the land are tearing him and the controversy. stigma of air force but in a colonel james wilkerson who was found guilty of aggravated sexual assault before airforce the tennant creek franklin tossed out the conviction. new york senator gillibrand who chaired the senate panel blasted the military's handling of sexual assault. >> i am extremely disturbed
8:07am
based on the last round of question and answer that each of you believe that convening authority is what maintains discipline and order within your ranks. if that is your view, i don't know how you can say having 19,000 sexual assaults and rapes a year is discipline and order. i appreciate the work you're doing. i honestly do. but it is not enough. your achievingour choosin discipline and order, i am sorry to say you are wrong. >> a trial has begun in ohio for two football players accused of raping a classmate last august. the young men possibly urinated on the girl's unconscious body, later chronicling their actions on social media sites. during opening statements, prosecutors said the victim was too drunk to make a decision on her welfare and vowed to introduce the suspects' social media postings as evidence. attorneys for the late internet
8:08am
freedom activist aaron swartz have filed a justice department ethics complaint over his prosecution. he took its own life in january, weeks before he was set to go on trial for downloading millions of articles provided by the nonprofit research service jstor. he was facing 35 years in prison, a penalty supporters called excessively harsh. in a letter to the justice department, his attorney accuses federal prosecutors of misconduct saying they sat on exculpatory evidence. in email with help from the attorneys of aaron swartz appears to review prosecutors' claims they did not have time to obtain a warrant to search his laptop. the letters released comes one week after the attorney general eric holder publicly to the prosecutor's conduct saying their case against aaron swartz was a good use of prosecutorial discretion. unrest broke out in a brooklyn area of new york wednesday night at a protest over the police
8:09am
shooting of 16-year-old kimani gray who was shot dead by two plainclothes officers who claimed he had a gun, but one witness has said he was not armed and another said he may not have known he was being approached by police. great guy from seven bullet wounds. wednesday night, at least 45 people were arrested after clashes broke out between police and demonstrators in his neighborhood. a group of demonstrators had thrown bottles after police officers seized gray's sister and gave her a summons. the source of the secret of their shorter republican president candidate mitt romney dismissing 47% of the electorate has revealed his identity. the deal was secretly recorded at a romney fundraiser in florida in may. on the tape from the describes sterley have the american electorate as people "dependent upon government who believe they are victims."
8:10am
>> they believe the government has the responsibility to take care of them, believe they are entitled to health care, food, housing, you name it. [indiscernible] video is released by the magazine mother jones and up into the 2012 presidential campaign, with many believing it doomed romney's's chances, including romney himself. the tape sparked new public debate over inequality in the u.s. and the attitudes of the wealthy toward lower-income americans. the source remained unknown until wednesday when scott prouty, a bartender at the event, can afford in an interview with msnbc. >> my name is scott prouty. i am a regular guy, middle- class, hard-working guy. i would like to think i have a good moral compass and core, and
8:11am
i think i have a little bit of empathy, more sympathy than romney had on how i describe myself, but i was behind this whole thing. i was bartending at night for the romney fundraiser. >> scott prouty said he brought his camera along after seeing former president bill clinton take pictures with fellow workers at a previous event. he hoped for the same with romney. but he said bronner's comments spurred him to make a full recording and then release it to the public to show average americans how romney spoke about them to wealthy donors behind closed doors. >> there are a lot of people who cannot afford to pay $50,000 for one dinner. i felt an obligation, in a way, to release it. i felt an obligation for all the people who cannot afford to be there. you should not have to be able to afford $50,000 the year with the candidate actually thinks. i don't think he has any clue what a regular american goes
8:12am
through on a daily basis. i don't think he has any idea what a single mom taking a bus to work, dropping her kid off at day care, she can barely afford it, hopping on another bus day in and day out, struggles of everyday americans. that guy has no idea. i don't think he will ever have an idea. >> calderón's 47% comments sparked a national controversy, scott prouty said was most disturbed by romney's bragging about a chinese factory he invested in where workers lived in harsh conditions. crotty said he remained anonymous until now to keep the focus on romney passwords and protect his livelihood, himself a knowledge the video's release was partially to blame for his loss and insisted he doesn't believe what he was recorded saying. >> it was a very unfortunate statement i made. it is not what i meant. i did not express myself as i wished i would have. when you speak in private, you
8:13am
don't spend as much time thinking about how something can be twisted and distorted and come out wrong and be used. but i did, and was very harmful. what i said is not what i believe. my whole life has been devoted to helping people -- all people. i care about all people in the country. but there's no question that it damage to my campaign. >> and those are some of the headlines. this is "democracy now!," democracynow.org, the war and peace report. i'm amy goodman with juan gonzalez. >> welcome to all our listeners and viewers from around the country and around the world. a papal conclave has selected cardinal jorge mario bergoglio of buenos aires, argentina, to be the new pope. he replaces pope benedict xvi, who shocked the catholic church last month when he became the first pontiff to resign in almost 600 years. bergoglio was the first pope from latin america, and the first not to help from europe in more than 1000 years. he is also the first to come from the jesuit order priests,
8:14am
which is known for its work on social justice. on wednesday, the new pope francis took to the balcony of st. peters wearing an unadorned white robe to briefly address the catholic pilgrims waiting to greet him. >> brothers and sisters, good evening. as you know, the duty of the conclave is to give wrong a bishop. it seems my brother cardinals went almost to the end of the world, but we are here. [cheers] first of all, i would like to pray for benedict, bishop emmert test. [cheers]
8:15am
him forall together for god to bless him and for the madonna. >> pope francis is viewed as a theological conservative who staunchly opposed same-sex marriage and the ordination of marriage. the jubilee usa network in the u.s. praised his selection for the devotion to the poor. his long been dogged by reports he aided the dictatorship in the 1970's. later in the broadcast, we will speak with a leading investigative journalist who has written extensively about the role of the new pope during argentina's military dictatorship. but we begin our show with tom roberts, editor at large at the national catholic reporter, author of the emerging catholic church. he joins us from kansas city, missouri. welcome to "democracy now!" give us a thumbnail history of pope francis. >> he is 76 years old.
8:16am
that puts him at the older and of the scale for a new pope. he was educated in argentina and also in rome and germany. he kind of in bodies a mix of european and developing world, first world and developing world sensibilities. he is a dozen would. as you mentioned earlier in the lead up, a lot of firsts in this one. the first jazz a wit, the first non-european and a long, long time. the first to be named francis. it is interesting. he is an academic. he started with a career in chemistry and decided to join the jesuits and rose quickly in their ranks. he was and a bishop by john the in 2001 and rose to ranks of cardinal. he has been around for quite awhile.
8:17am
it is a very interesting choice because of the first and the fact he is outside of the normal wheel of vatican influence and that culture. >> tom, the significance of some of these breakthroughs here, these first. specifically, him being a jazz a whit. the jesuits have always been considered the intellectuals, the philosophers of the church. way back in the colonial period, the spanish monarchy expel them from the americas because of their social role. that particular significance? , it isany order a priest significant for any order of priests to be elected pope. i don't know how many of them there have been, but especially jesuits who have particular
8:18am
players in the church through forory, and noted intellectual accomplishments for raising institutions of higher learning, and for the social justice component. they have been strong social justice advocates and many areas of the world. i think the other thing that is 16 -- distinctive, and nothing to do with being a jesuit as approach to ecclesiology and what it means to be a religious leader, is the way he lives. of buenoscame bishop aires, he did not take the big mansion. he gave up the driver and the car, took the bus to work, as they say, often takes the equivalent of the subway. he really does live a life identified with the poor, cooking his own meals and a simple apartment. he has been identified with very
8:19am
strong social justice current in latin america. he has used language about the inequalities between countries and talks about argentina as one of the most unequal places in the world, the unjust distribution of goods as asocial sen. there are many characteristics that do not fit any categories except he comes from the global south and there we find religious leaders who have very strong social justice in stings, even though on many of these issues he is considered a theological conservative, which would not be rare, by the way, for any of those cardinals. you will not find a liberal or someone in the developed board would call a liberal and that conclave. >> the significance of him choosing the name francis, pope francis? >> he made it clear it was for
8:20am
france is a sissy -- asissi. the significance cut a number of ways. first of all, i think it is a recognition if francis is used as a reform figure. the need for reform in the church, getting back to the gospel. he does not like, every where'll chronicled, he does not like all the fuss of a labyrinth clothing. simplicity is the order for him. of thee came out with none frills that can go along with the first entrance. the other thing he did, he bowed in prayer to the group, to the crown before him and ask them to pray for him first before he gave them his blessing, which is a significant sign of humility.
8:21am
the other thing he did which i think was very enduring -- in during to catholics worldwide, he asked them to join him in prayer and her aide familiar -- great familiar prayers. it was a meeting of someone we could understand. this was not elevated theology. this was not a triumphant entry. this was a very humble, walk with me, as he said, as we began this journey together and that's pretty simple prayer as we all know. and before i as pontiff bless you, pray for me. it was a really different entrance. >> tom roberts, thank you for being with us, editor at large, author of, "the emerging catholic church: a community's search for itself." when we come back, we will go to buenos aires to speak with the leading investigative journalist, horacio verbitsky, to talk about the role that the
8:22am
new pope, pope francis, played during the 1970's during what is known in argentina as the dirty wars. stay with us. ♪ [music break]
8:23am
>> this is "democracy now!," democracynow.org, the war and peace report. i'm amy goodman with juan gonzalez. >> for more in the new pope, we turn to one of argentina's leading investigative journalists, horacio verbitsky, who has written extensively about the career of the card on bergoglio and his actions to the military dictatorship that ruled argentina from 1976 to 1983. during that time up to 30,000 people were kidnapped and killed. a 2005 lawsuit accused jorge bergoglio of being connected to the 1976 kidnappings of two jesuits priests, orlando yorio and fransisco jalics. the lawsuit was found after the publication of the book, "the
8:24am
silence: from paul vi to bergoglio, the secret relations between the church and esma." esma refers to the former navy school that was turned into a detention center where people were tortured by the military dictatorship. the new pope has denied the charges. he twice invoked his right under argentine law to refuse to appear in open court to testify about the allegations. when he did testify in 2010, human rights activists characterized his answers as evasive. >> horacio verbitsky joins us on the phone from his home in buenos aires. he is an investigative journalist for the newspaper pagina dolce, page 12 and english. he is the head of the center for legal and social studies, an argentine human rights organization. we welcome you to "democracy now!" i want you to lay out for us what you believe is important to understand about the new pope, pope francis. >> the main thing to understand
8:25am
about pope francis the first is that he is a conservative populist in the same style that john paul ii was. strong man of , but withve decisions a touch for popular tastes. in rail stations, in the streets. quarters ofhe poor the city to pray. he goes for the people.
8:26am
his message is absolutely conservative. he is opposed to abortion, to law.atrimonial he launched a crusade against evil when congress was passing this law. in the very same style that john paul ii. consider the main feature on the new pope. >> horacio verbitsky, that would be true of many of the cardinals elevated during the period of pope paul and now of benedict xvi, a basic conservative as some -- conservatism. but in the case of bergoglio,
8:27am
you have documented along with others, of his particular role or accusations about his involvement in the dirty wars in argentina. could you talk about that? you have been a leading investigative reporter uncovering the relations between the church and the government in terms of the dirty wars. >> of course. he was accused by two jesuit priest of having surrendered them to the military. they were a group of jesuits that were under the direction of bergoglio. he was the superior of the order verygentina, been very, young. he was the youngest in history at 36 years. during a period of great political activity he stimulated
8:28am
the social work of the jesuits. but when the military coup overthrew the peron government, he was in touch with the military that ousted this government and asked the jesuits to stop their social work. when they refused to do it, he stopped protecting them and he let the military no there were not more inside the protection of the jesuit company and there were kidnapped. they accused him for this deed. he denies this. he tried toe that
8:29am
get them free, that he talked with a former dictator -- with former dictators to have them freed. , i heard two time versions. the version of the two kid that priests that were released after six months of torture -- of two kidnapped priests that were released after six months of torture, and the version of bergoglio. in the humanssue rights movement to which i , because the president [indiscernible] bergoglio was an accomplice of the military.
8:30am
and lawyer, was a friend of bergoglio, the other part of the story that bergoglio helped them. these were the two versions. but during research for one of my books, i found documents in the archive of the foreign relations ministry in argentina, which, from my understanding, gave an end to the debate and show the double standard that bergoglio used. note int document is a which bergoglio asked the ministry to the renewal of the passport of one of these two
8:31am
jesuits that after his release in was living in germany, asking the passport was renewed without necessity of these priests coming back to argentina. the second document is a note from an officer that received a petition recommending to his superior minister the refusal of the renewal of the passport. the third document is a note from the same officer saying linkshese priests have with subversion that was named the military gave to all the people involved in opposition to the government -- political
8:32am
position to the military, and he was [indiscernible] school of the navy and saying this information was provided to jorgeficer by father bergoglio. understanding, this is a double standard. he asked the passport given to -- priest and a formal note in a formal note, but under the table he said the opposite and repeated the accusations that produced the kidnapping of these priests. >> an these priests, can you explain, horacio verbitsky, what happened to them? orlando yorio and fransisco
8:33am
jalics? after he was released, went to rome. >> how were they found? were they?dition what had happened to them? both of them were released, drugged, confused, transported to the outskirts abandoned.ires and there were very bad condition. they were tortured, interrogated. one of the interrogators had external shellings about theological questions -- external knowings about the
8:34am
logical questions. [indiscernible] he said that bergoglio himself had been part of the interrogation, this visit wit -- jesuit priest? >> he told me he had the impression that bergoglio was present during the interrogation. hadof the interrogators external knowing of theological questions. when released he went to rome. ron,ved seven years in then came back to argentina. when coming back to argentina, and buenosrrogated
8:35am
aires where the bishop was one of the leaders of the progress of branch of the argentine church opposite to that of bergoglio. denouncedrio bergoglio. i received his testimony. selected.glio was i interviewed bergoglio and he denied the charges. he told me he had defended them. orlando yorio got me in touch with fransisco jalics that was living in germany. them and heh confirmed the story, but he did not want to be mentioned in my
8:36am
piece because he told me he preferred to not remember this .ad part of his life tos -- he had decided forget. when i released the book with the story, one argentine journalist working for national , talked with him and asked him for the story. asked him for the story. fransisco jalics told him
8:37am
okay, gang. let's begin. we were talking about radiation, heat transfer by radiation. we've got heat transfer by conduction,
8:38am
heat transfer by convection and, last of all, heat transfer by radiation. and heat transfer by radiation, we talked about this idea. that everything is emitting radiation of some frequency. these are electromagnetic waves. we'll be talking about electromagnetic waves later in the course. and electromagnetic waves have a frequency. there's a high frequency. tick, tick, tick, tick, tick, tick, tick. and there's a low frequency. tick, tick, tick, tick. there's a vibrational frequency to waves. and that vibrational frequency to the waves is directly proportional to the temperature. temperature of the sun is enormous, and therefore we have an enormous frequency, so high a frequency that it activates the optical system in your eyes, we call it light. that's very, very high frequency. millions of billions of cycles per second of such little vibrations. very, very high frequency. high frequency because the sun's electrons are shaking at high rates. we'll gonna learn later on, if you take an electron and shake it back and forth, you'll get a wave in space that will shake back and forth at the very same frequency.
8:39am
so it stands for a reason, something of a high temperature with a lot of molecular motion, okay, a lot of charges moving, moving, moving, that that high temperature would give you a high frequency. so this is not counterintuitive. sometimes, we learn things that are kinda a little bit against common sense. we have to look a little deeper till we find out, "hey, it fits after all." this one, we don't. it makes sense that a high temperature would emit a high frequency. if you take a piece of metal, you guys can all see this. you're seeing this piece of metal because light is being reflected from the metal and go to your eyes. but if i turned all the lights out, you wouldn't be able to see this metal. but what i could do is i could start to heat it, maybe i could pass an electric current through it. and i could heat it, heat it, heat it, and pretty soon it would start to glow. and what color will the glow first, gang? red. it will turn red, and then kinda red orange, yellow, and then it will smear out to a white. it will become white hot. and that would-- and that means what? the temperature is high, high enough so the radiation it's emitting can be seen. see, this is emitting radiation right now.
8:40am
but the temperature is so slow, the temperature of iron is so low compared to that for incandescent, it's over a thousand degrees. the temperature of iron is so low that the radiation that's coming out doesn't activate your sense of sight at all. what you're seeing is reflected light from these hot lamps above but not the light coming from here. but everything is emitting radiation. question? how fast does this radiation travel? all this radiation travels at 300,000 kilometers per second. that's the speed of light. we know light travels that fast. it turns out that the heat rays, so called heat rays, all electromagnetic radiation, 186,000 miles per second or 300,000 kilometers per second, speed of light. and that's how fast these radiations travel. everything is emitting, and everything is absorbing. if something absorbs, all it kept catches, then it reflects none. i'll show you an idea right here. there's a hole there. is this hole absorbing the radiation that hits it or is it emitting?
8:41am
it absorbs. i've got the color-- i've got the inside of this box painted, gang. and guess what color it's painted? white. black. what color does it look like now? black. white. you've been reading the book, right? [laughter] and we find out, lo and behold, it's white inside. isn't that nice? okay. but when i close the box, boom. look into your neighbor's eyes right in the very, very center, do that right now. how many are shy? [laughter] they said, "no, i don't want to look in the eye." come on, right in the eye. come on. right in the middle. right in the middle. how many are going like this? haah. that's nice, isn't it? isn't that nice? hey, how come the center of the eye is black? there's no reason for that. everyone got black pupils. why black pupils? because they absorb. because they're like this. they're absorbing. they're absorbing. how much light that goes into your eye that are bouncing around.
8:42am
how much do you think goes back out again? how much light that comes in here and they'll go through all these multiple reflections comes back out the hole? not very much. so the hole to you looks black. okay? because there's what-- this is a net absorber. however, if i put fire in here, made it very, very bright, then you'll see that hole very, very bright, then it would be a net emitter. we call this a black body. a body that absorbs all the radiation that hits it appears black to the eye. we call that a black body. there's a whole science of black body radiation. we won't be getting into that. we talked about this temperature up here. how about like this with-- this is to say if frequency is directly proportional to temperature, then if you double the temperature, what would happen to the frequency of radiation? double. that's what it means when you write two things like these with a proportion. see, there're no square or cube or anything like that. that means one is proportional to the other. we've got that idea a long time ago, yeah? okay. this is double the temperature, double the frequency.
8:43am
well, let's suppose i consider something that's one degree celsius. if something is one degree above freezing, would it be radiating energy? yes. would that energy have a frequency? how about i compare that to radiating at two degrees above celsius? would that be radiating energy? would that energy have a frequency? yes. would that frequency be doubled? no. check your neighbor. yeah. ah. hey, gang. would the temperature be-- would the frequency be doubled? get right to that point. get right to that question. the question is: wouldn't that work best for kelvin? yeah. honey, it will only work for kelvin because one degree celsius is not twice as hot as two is-- i should say two degrees celsius is not twice as hot as one degree celsius. see, to say twice as hot is to imply twice the internal energy.
8:44am
try this one. the waitress brings over some coffee because you've ordered coffee with your apple pie, and you say, "oh, i'd like the coffee really hot." and she brings it over, and you put your trusty thermometer in, and, son of a gun, it's iced coffee. ice cubes and everything. it's zero degrees celsius. and you say to the waitress, "no, i know you're busy and all, "but could you give me some coffee that's hotter than this?" she says, "how hot do you want it?" i said, "well, i'd like to drink it twice as hot." what's the temperature of the twice-as-hot coffee if it's zero celsius to begin with? okay, gang. in this case, i think you see that the celsius scale doesn't work. no. because twice as hot is zero degrees. zero degrees, there's still energy there, yeah? there's a lot of internal energy. and to say you have twice the internal energy, hey, two times zero is what? it turns out two times zero is 273. 273. let's be talking about that. we haven't talked about the kelvin scale yet.
8:45am
we talked about the scales we talked about. we talked about the fahrenheit scale, fahrenheit degrees. we went from 32 to 212 for the temperature of boiling water and the temperature of melting ice. and we talked about zero degrees and 100 degrees, and this was the celsius temperature or centigrade, celsius centigrade, same, same, okay? and--but now, we have to talk about the absolute zero of temperature when you start to take ratios of temperatures because this is not the coldest that one can get. you can get a lot colder than that. that liquid nitrogen we had in here the other day that was about-- almost 190 degrees below this. how far down can you go? and it turns out how far down you can go is 273 degrees down here. and down here on the floor, that is the absolute zero, down there. that's the absolute zero temperature. so it turns out on this kelvin scale,
8:46am
we don't even say kelvin degrees. we just say kelvins. i mean, kelvin was really honcho, okay? these are all kelvins, all right? on this kelvin scale, the point at which ice melts would be 273 positive. see, with the kelvin scale, there's no negative numbers. everything is positive. ain't that nice? see? and then the temperature of boiling water is 373 because they have made the kelvin scale, the scientist-types, so that it has the same divisions as the celsius scale. but absolute zero is 273 degrees under there. so if we have that ice coffee that's, say-- let's take something that won't change state because it turns out the ice coffee, something will happen to it when it gets up to 100 degrees celsius. what will it do? boil. it will start to turn into steam, see. but let's suppose you had like a piece metal. i have this metal here at zero degrees. and i make it twice as hot, twice the internal energy. see if your neighbor knows
8:47am
what would the temperature be in celsius of this piece of iron bar twice as hot as zero degrees. check your neighbor. okay, gang. what's the answer? 273. 273 degrees celsius. does everyone see that? if you don't see that, i think you can see it with this little story. let's consider celsius the village tailor. and celsius is a tailor who has a shop. he makes gowns for graduations. and he has a shop, and he has a ruler here, okay? and his ruler is right against the wall. now, does that ruler have to have readings that go all the way down to the floor? no. it turns out it doesn't because the shortest customer that tailor is gonna have is probably about this high. and the tallest customer is probably about this high. so celsius only need to put a sort of measuring device from here to here. there's no need to go way down there, not for measuring the height of adults,
8:48am
people who graduate, yeah? so we start here. all right, it turns out by the way that from here to the floor is 273 notches down, okay? okay. now, one day someone comes in to the store, and they get measured, and son of a gun, there's a little tiny guy like this and still-- measures the height. he says, "my gosh, you're right at the zero mark. you're really, really short, aren't you?" and the dude says, "i got a sister twice as tall as me." how many notches tall is the sister? do you see? you would see that here we got zero on the scale, twice zero is not zero. the sister must be up to here. 273 notches higher, do you see that? so we gotta talk about self-- i mean, no, kelvins, kelvins. whenever you're talking about something like this, nature's temperature. see, celsius degrees and fahrenheit degrees are also people's temperatures. a nature's temperature doesn't start with a melting point of ice.
8:49am
nature's temperature starts at the lowest possible temperature you can get to. you know, we talked about the energy of motion of molecules high at absolute zero. none. no more to give up. things there at the rock bottom, that's the lowest temperature you can get. and so we always talk about things like this in terms of nature's temperature, kelvins. some people in chemistry classes say, "how come we gotta convert to kelvin all the time?" well, if you've taken differences in temperature, you don't have to. but if you're taking ratios, you have to take nature's temperature, kelvin degrees. another, do you think kinda neat thing that is another common sense idea is newton's law of cooling? this one makes sense. it has to do with the rate. the rate of cooling is proportional to delta t.
8:50am
in this case, i wouldn't have to be concerned with kelvins because the difference in temperature from here to here and the difference from here to here would be the same. do you see? i'm not taking a ratio. but over here at newton's law of cooling is-- for the rate of cooling is proportional to the difference in-- now what do you mean difference? you know, delta means difference. that means how hot something is compared to what the surroundings are. if this thing here is red hot, and this is maybe something like of 500 degrees above the surroundings, then that's a high delta t. guess what the rate at which this degrees are gonna clip off will be, high rate. see? if i take this thing and warm it up a little bit like this. now, it's a little bit warmer than the environment. how quickly does it cool? not very quickly because delta t is very small. if i put this in an oven and turn it red hot, take it outside. [makes sounds] this thing starts cooling like mad, okay? i mean, let's suppose every-- by you hear click, click, click, okay?
8:51am
red hot, click, click, click, click, click, click, click, click, click, click, click, click, click, see? one hot, click, click, make sense? it makes sense doesn't it? very, very--things that very, very hot compared to surrounding will cool out quickly. things that aren't so hot don't cool up so quickly, huh? so that's kinda make sense. if you got a can of beer or something, you wanna cool it down quickly. you put it in a fridge, someone says, "no, no. put it in a freezer, it'll cool faster." you say, "well, honey, if it gets down "to what the fridge is that's good enough. i'll just leave it in a fridge." who's right? put it in a fridge or the freezer, you wanna cool it faster. how many say same-same? if you wait five minutes it's the same. check your neighbor. you kinda see that, gang? you kinda see that? in places where it's cold in the winter, when do those homes leak energy more, on a cold day or a warmish day?
8:52am
on a cold day, there's a greater delta t between the temperature inside the home and outside. and a great big delta t means, honey, you are gonna have a high rate of cooling. and you know what you pay for when you hit your home? what you pay for really ultimately is the heat that's leaking out all of the time. otherwise, you heat your home up in september, keep your doors all closed, you wouldn't have to burn any more fuel for the rest of the winter. but that's not true, the heat's leaking all the time mostly through your windows. and the greater the delta t, the greater the difference in temperature between inside and outside, then the greater it's gonna be the rate of heat flow. and opposite's true, too, if you're in a climate like around here. we are air conditioning all the time. the greater the difference in temperature between the outside and the inside, the greater the heat flows from the outside into your home making your air conditioning bill goes up higher. so the greater the delta t, the greater the rate of cooling or warming if you put it in the other way. they kinda make sense, doesn't it? so that's the common sense type thing.
8:53am
this delta t is interesting. if you have small delta t, small changes in temperature, it turns out--i heard this some years ago. if you have a frog, a frog cannot discern small changes in temperature. if you put a frog in a pan of water, and then put that water on a hot plate. turn the hot plate on. and heat the water up very, very slowly. the frog will not discern the small temperature changes. and the frog, i heard, will just sit there and boil alive. i heard that, being the science type, i had to try it. [laughter] so it's in ecology, went up to the biology lab, third floor, i picked out a frog, "hi, harry." and i put that frog in a little pan, okay? so ain't that frog and so-- up there anyway. that frog was gonna get right up in the head, anyway, okay? i put the--and i made a deal with the frog. "froggy, if you survive this, i'll put you outside
8:54am
"with the seagulls. i mean, i'll put you outside for freedom, all right?" and i put the frog in there, and i put him in the hot plate and i watch, i watch, i watch and suddenly, i know it was true. that frog was free to jump in any time. and the frog stayed there, because delta t was very small, small, small. that heat up very, very quickly, the frog will sense it and jump, but the frog got used to it. and then i heard this is not restricted to frogs. guess what else behave the same way begin with p and with eople. peoples, yeah. people are the same way. you, guys, know that? if you get in a tub and someone heats it grad-- this happened in noe valley, in noe valley in california a few years ago. a couple are sitting in their hot tub, and they had a faulty heater. and the heater kept heating and heating and heating and the people just kinda get drowsy, get drowsy and stayed right in there and cooked alive. oh, i mean cooked dead, okay? yeah, people the same way.
8:55am
as long as you make delta t small, small, small, small, small, you'll get used to it. you'll feel no pain, and you're just kinda check out. this has an interesting application. that you can reverse to-- say again. that you can everse to-- i think it's the same thing as with colder too. if you get gradually, gradually, gradually, you will accept it. you will become used to it people are like that. we become used to all sorts of adversity if it's given to us n small enough doses. like the name--you want, like sound and effect. and you could walk into a friend's factory and go in there and say, "my god, how could-- it's so noisy. how can you stand it in here?" he say, "oh, i get used to it. "when i came here, there was two machines going "and then three and then four and then five and you kinda get used to it." 'cause they can't hear anymore, okay, that type of thing, yeah. really, you'll get used to that. now, i had friend from japan, for example, come over to see me in san francisco and he saw all the bars on the windows.
8:56am
"what are all these bars for?" i said, "that's to keep the thieves out." he say, "you guys are living with--you got the bars on the wrong side-- bars are on the thieves." "oh, no, no. the thieves have their rights, man, you know?" and other thing is we get so used to it, so used to it. first, the bar on this one as ain't before, you know, the whole city is a barricade, you know? something that happens slowly, slowly, slowly, you get used to and you accept. it's like the nuclear missiles, right? first a few, right? then a few more, then a few more gradually they-- living in a whole world ready to blow up and well, you kinda get used to it. [laughter] small enough doses. something happens in san francisco at fisherman's wharf all the time that kinda bothers me. it's like auschwitz there. auschwitz. you get down there you wanna get your crabs, you wanna get your lobsters or you go to fisherman's wharf and you wanna order a nice lobster dinner. now how do you-- what do you think that-- with that lobster you're eating, what do you suppose-- the fate of that lobster is before you eat it? they come out and say,
8:57am
"hey, do you want this one here?" and this old charlie go like this, you know, "hey, hey, not me, not me." [laughter] and take you on your charlie's. what do they do to that lobster? boiled. they boil that lobster. now, is there any concern for the lobster's well being? no. you want that lobster right away, right? you want it quick 'cause you got things to do. you know what they do? they take that lobster, open up a big pot, a boiling water that's boiling, boiling and they throw the lobster in. let me ask you a question, what do you suppose the lobster thinks about that? [laughter] what happen to that lobster-- [makes sounds] the lobster freaks. so you get your lobster, your lobster come to eat, right? and you looked down your lobster, which your lobster-- [makes sounds] and you're eating a lobster looks like that? why do they do that? why not--and i'm serious, why not take the lobster and put it in water that's room temperature, "hi, charlie. bye, charlie."
8:58am
no pain. then put the lobster on a stove. last time, i--that's the way i cook lobsters, i do it that way. you put the lobster on the stove. room temperature water. then turn on the heat-- [makes sounds] --bring it to a boil, your lobster's cooking, your lobster, your lobster's-- [laughter] --a lot better. you're eating a happy lobster. i'm telling you, yeah. i don't understand that. i don't understand that. why freak out the lobster like that. what if there's a lobster heaven and you go, "oh, what did you do to my kinfolk." yeah. so cook your lobster on room temperature water and bring it gradually to boil. a lobster won't feel a thing. they'd be okay. eat a happy lobsters. lee, did you have a question? in cases like this, wouldn't it be wiser to kind of check your environment every once in a while just to make sure that you're right?
8:59am
or maybe death or something like if you're in hot tub or anything. it's always good to check your environment to see what the delta t is. and the delta t could stand for so many things. true? yeah. hey, here's an easy question to answer, gang. no, no. here's an easy question not so easy to answer. little kid says to you, "so you live in hawaii. really nice, nice and warm all the time." "yup, nice and warm all the time, man." "i got some friends live up in northern alaska. it's cold all the time." "well, that's the way alaska is, man." [laughter] "how come it's so cold up there and so warm in hawaii?" then you say, "well, there's no reason for that. "hawaii is tropical and alaska is not. that's it." the kid says, "no, back in the question, why?"